A city that was independent of all other authority. In Mesopotamia, it included the city, the surrounding mud brick wall, and the surrounding farmland
Cradle of civilization 
Where the world's first civilization occurred
School where young boys learned reading, writing, and arithmetic
A collection of kingdoms under the power of one powerful ruler
One of ancient Mesopotamia's most legendary historical figures, subject of the first epic
How did the people of Mesopotamia control the two rivers? 
System of irrigation canals and levees
Raised areas of earth to hold back the floodwaters
List 5 things that the Sumerians were first to achieve? 
Civilization, writing, the water clock, the twelve-month calendar based on lunar cycles, the wheel, the plow, the sailboat
Mesopotamia is now divided into two countries. List these countries. 
Iran and Iraq
Powerful religious leaders who were also the rulers of the city-states
Sargon I
Created the world's first empire in the area of ancient Mesopotamia
A wedge-shaped instrument made out of reed used to write on clay tablets
What did the majority of people do for work in Mesopotamia? 
What does the word Mesopotamia mean? 
The land between the rivers
What is a ziggurat? 
A temple located in the center of each Sumerian city-state that housed the city-state's patron god
What kind of clothing did they wear? 
Men: bare-chested, wore skirt-like garments tied at the waist. Women: gowns, covered them from shoulders to ankles. Made from wool or flax
What river is to the north?
What river is to the south?
What was the first epic story called? 
The Epic of Gilgamesh
What was the name of the world's first writing system? 
Who was Hammurabi? What is he most famous for? 
The king of Babylon who wrote the world’s first code of laws
Who were the people who established the world's first civilization in Mesopotamia? 
The Sumerians
Why was there a need for a writing system? 
To keep track of farming and agricultural production
What are fluvial, thalassic, and oceanic civilizations? Civilizations centered around control of a river, sea, or ocean respectively